ALFREDO/BOSCO

Donbass: No Man's Land

Reportage of the Donbass region in Ukraine
Since 2014 a civil war has torn the Donbass region in Eastern Ukraine. On one side pro-Russian separatist forces have formed the unrecognised republics of Donetsk and Luhansk, while on the other, the Ukrainian government has employed its National Guard and paramilitary troops.
In the same year, the Minsk protocol, a trilateral agreement between Ukraine, Russia and the OSCE, imposed a cease-fire. Although it contributed to a substantial drop of casualties, thus far more than 10,000 according to the OCHA, a brutal side-effect has transformed the conflict into a war of attrition, alarmingly similar to the trenches of WWI.
More than 3 million people are affected and 200,000 civilians live near conflict zones (UN report). For Donbassí inhabitants life has changed drastically. Many elderly and families from the regionís villages have sought shelter in dormitories and Soviet-era bunkers where they share communal spaces and have learned to live together creating a new form of kommounalka. In Torezís illegal crumbling mines, thousands of coal miners risk their lives daily for wages that barely provide for their families.
Meanwhile separatist soldiers keep the conflict alive and continue to live in foxholes gaining no territory at all, thus giving the military republic of Donetsk, ruled by Zacharcenko, its only reason of existence.
Regardless of the great human cost, the desire to create the vast, independent and Russian state of Novorossia, an immense geo-political project whose boundaries would stretch from Donbass to Odessa, continues, even though for the past three years expansion hasnít gone beyond Donetsk, where the cease-fire ruled by the Minsk protocol is violated by both divisions.
Propaganda persuades people in Donetsk to associate the conflict to WWII. For this reason, the May 9 parade, which celebrates the Soviet soldiersí victory against the western Nazi-fascist enemy, has gained more and more importance over the past years, and the 11PM curfew reminds people that the conflict is still ongoing.
Separatist soldiers repeat to themselves: ďour position is their defeatĒ, but it isnít hard to see that these are meaningless achievements and that Donbass is destined to a dim future.
As the soil under the soldiersí boots is indistinguishable from the mud on the minersí helmets, the new republicsí endeavour for autonomy produces as little result as the minersí strenuous work.
From an important industrial area of steel plants and coal mines, Donbass has become a vast desolate battlefield. A no manís land between two enemy lines, between East and West. A buffer zone which allows Russia to exercise political and strategic power while revealing Ukraineís political inconsistency. A scene of civil war at the gates of Europe for which the UE and Russia have proven to be incapable of dialogue and of an effective resolution.

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Ukraine; Donbass region; Spartak; 2016

Exhausted soldier in a shelter.
Near the frontline in the area of Spartak the Ukrainian division attacks with overnight heavy shellings. "Unpredictable spikes in the armed hostilities further exacerbated the situation of general insecurity" (UNHR report).
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Ukraine; Donbass Region; North of Spartak; 2017

Volunteer shooting the Ukrainian lines with a rocket-propelled grenade. The two forces attack nightly ignoring the current ceasefire.
The ceasefire ruled by the Minsk Protocol was signed in 2014 but fell apart less than a year later. A renewed protocol in 2015 signed for a second armistice but, as the OSCE reports have shown, also failed to stop the fighting.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Debaltsevo; 2015

Check point near Debaltsevo.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2014

The morgue of the city of Donetsk. Every day dozen of corpses arrive from the frontline. Most of them remain unrecognized.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2017

View of the destroyed airport of Donetsk taken from the ruins of the Iversky monastery. The monastery was completely shelled during the battle for the airport. A graveyard lies in between.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Kraznyi Partyzan; 2016

Woman who lives near the grey zone in Krasnyi Partyzan.
Still after two years from the beginning of the conflict, many families live near the frontline risking their lives daily because of the nightly shellings.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Spartak; 2016

Separatist soldier barricaded in a shelter for the night.
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Ukraine; Donbass Region; Torez; 2015

Three miners taking a break from their work.
In the current situation of great instability, war and mining are the only two activities that offer a monetary return.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2014

Separatist rebel sniper during the attack of Donetsk's airport.
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Ukraine; Donbass Region; Torez; 2017

Coal miner working in an illegal coal mine.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2017

Separatist soldier during his guard at sunset.
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Ukraine; Donbass Region; Torez; 2015

Miners taking a shower after a long day of work in an illegal coal mine. The level of health and working conditions is incredibly low and all security standards remain unaltered since the Soviet era.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2014

Commander Givi and his soldiers during an attack against the Ukrainian troops at Donetsk's airport.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2015

Destroyed car near the area of the airport.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2016

Refugees in Donetsk. After three years of war, most of the people who lived in the areas around Yasenavataya, Pinsky and Spartak cannot return to their homes.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2017

Commander Lom chats with his soldiers in a trench.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2014

View of the airport of Donetsk during an attack by separatist troops.
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Ukraine; Donbass Region; Debaltsevo; 2015

Humanitarian aid distributed in Debaltsevo. In the beginning of 2015, the city was significantly destroyed during the fighting between the volunteers of the DPR (Donetsk People's Republic) and the Ukrainian army.
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Ukraine; Donbass Region; Torez; 2014

Portrait of a young coal miner who just finished his shift.
Coal was a vital resource for the Soviet Union's industrial machine, providing the energy to power the heavy industries that dominated the Donbass region.
In the Soviet years mining jobs caused an influx of workers into the area around Donetsk, including the town of Torez. Miners enjoyed privileges not available to other Soviet labourers and were often depicted as role models for society.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Petrovsky District; 2017

Svetlana with her three children and her mother-in-law. The family lives close to the frontline and is afraid of night bombings.
According to a 2016 report from the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), almost 300,000 people in the combat zone are critically food insecure and in need of immediate assistance.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2017

A political refugee in her bedroom in one of Donetsk's dormitories. After being arrested by the Ukrainian security service in Mariupol she moved to Donetsk where she's being hosted for more than two years.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2017

A wounded volunteer communicating with the frontline.
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Ukraine; Donbass Region; Donetsk; 2017

Officials of Donetsk's firefighters squadron.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Petrovsky District; 2017

Women watching a Soviet-era movie in the shelter where they've been enduring harsh conditions since the war began.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Luhansíke; 2017

Soldiers in a trench near Donetsk.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2017

Portrait of Lom, a separatist commander and communist activist. Before the war he worked as a truck driver in Italy and later as a coal miner.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2017

An old veteran from WWII.
Propaganda persuades people in Donetsk to think that the volunteer fighters opposing to Kievís government are fighting a battle similar to the one Soviet veterans won against the western Nazi-fascist enemy.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Donetsk; 2015

Interior of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Donetsk.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Spartak; 2016

Interior of a house bombed by the Ukrainian army.
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Ukraine; Donbass region; Debaltsevo; 2015

Abandoned trench near the frontline of Debaltsevo.
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